Every moment of a lesson matters. Each minute spent doing something that doesn’t lead to learning is sixty seconds wasted. However, there are a lot of activities that occur in a lesson that likely do not lead to student development. Fortunately, emerging research is shining a light on what works in the classroom.
Through the use of cognitive research and our understanding of the science of learning, we can help accelerate learning. So, what does a psychologically smart lesson look like?
Pre-questioning involves asking students questions before they learn the relevant information.
A recent study found that students who had been asked pre-questions not only learnt more about those topics, but also remembered the rest of the lesson better as well. This effect is thought to have occurred because such questioning focuses students and creates a sense of intrigue surrounding the information they’re about to learn.
No Fancy Power Point Animations
Teachers often spend a lot of time jazzing up their PowerPoint presentations to include animations, music and sounds to help keep their students engaged. However, a recent study actually found that students learnt more from quite simple and basic PowerPoints.
Essentially, the ‘bells and whistles’ of fancy animations often acted as a distraction, as the brain can only process a certain amount of information (and the extra stimuli takes up space that would otherwise be filled with valuable content).
Use Both Pictures and Words
Dual-coding theory shows the power of combining both words and pictures in learning new material. Research has found that students who revised with this technique performed twice as well in a problem-solving task when compared with those who had revised with just words. This occurred because supplying the brain with both words and pictures means that it has two different ways to process the information.
Lots of Quizzes
Teachers should include activities that use retrieval practice in their lessons. Retrieval practice, often referred to as the “testing effect”, is where students complete an activity that forces them to recall information in order to generate an answer. This could involve quizzes, multiple choice tests, or simply getting students to answer questions. Research has shown that students who used retrieval practice remember information for longer.
This method can also protect students against the negative effects that stress can have on memory – with 72% of students reporting that retrieval practice made them feel less nervous about their upcoming exams.
Have Students Teach Someone at the End
Recent research has demonstrated the effectiveness of getting students to teach each other at the end of a lesson. In one particular study, 100 students were split into two groups. One group had to read a passage and were led to believe that they would later have to teach another student on its content whilst another group were told that they would be tested on the passage.
The researchers found that students who had been expecting to teach the material to someone else remembered more of the material such that they performed over 12% better in the test. They also stored the information in a more efficient way and were more likely to be able to recall the most important facts.
Set the Right Amount of Homework
Teachers need to ensure that they get the right balance with setting homework. Research investigating 7,451 teenagers in Spain found that the regularity of homework being set is more important than the amount. Furthermore, students who spent 90 minutes a day doing homework achieved the highest grades.
However, they also found that the additional gains beyond setting 1 hour of homework a night probably did not justify the extra time that it took to complete it.
There is a wealth of research out there that can help teachers plan and prepare the most effective lesson possible. Gimmicks and fads come and go - they often promise the world and then fail to deliver.
By being evidence-based and research-informed, it is easy to create a psychologically smart lesson that helps students realise their potential and maximise their learning.